In the late 1980s and early 1990s, concern over dioxin in both paper products and wastewater led to the development of techniques that reduced the use of chlorine in the pulp industry. Both regulatory and consumer pressure motivated this change. We use patent data to examine the evolution of two completing bleaching technologies in five major paper-producing countries, both of which reduce the use of chlorine in the pulping process. By the end of the 1990s, nearly all pulp production in these countries used one of these technologies. Unlike other papers using patents to study environmentally-friendly innovation, we focus on a process innovation, rather than on end-of-the-pipe solutions to pollution. Moreover, while previous studies emphasize the importance of regulation for inducing innovation, here we find substantial innovation occurring before regulations were in place. Instead, pressure from consumers to reduce the chlorine content of paper drives the first round of innovation. However, while some companies choose to adopt these technologies in response to consumer pressure, not all firms will differentiate their product in this way. Thus, governments need to regulate if their goal is broad diffusion of the environmental technology.
|Statement||David Popp, Tamara Hafner, Nick Johnstone.|
|Series||NBER working paper series -- working paper 13439., Working paper series (National Bureau of Economic Research) -- working paper no. 13439.|
|Contributions||Hafner, Tamara., Johnstone, Nick, 1965-, National Bureau of Economic Research.|
|The Physical Object|
|Pagination||42 p. :|
|Number of Pages||42|
Get this from a library! Policy vs. Consumer Pressure: Innovation and Diffusion of Alternative Bleaching Technologies in the Pulp Industry. [David Popp; Tamara Hafner; Nick Johnstone] -- In the late s and early s, concern over dioxin in both paper products and wastewater led to the development of techniques that reduced the use of chlorine in the pulp industry. Food Standards and Labeling Policy Book The Policy Book is intended to be guidance to help manufacturers and prepare product labels that are truthful and not misleading. Compliance with the requirements set forth in this publication Pressure Sensitive Stickers and Indelible Ink. Product Name Qualifiers. Rolls. A consumer publication is a magazine or publication intended for the general reading public — typically for readers interested in spending leisure time exploring myriad topics. Conversely, a reader looking for information related to a particular line of work would search for a trade publication to get more information about an industry or trade. Facebook under pressure for weak consumer policy; Facebook under pressure for weak consumer policy. EU regulators will decide next week whether Facebook's consumer policy comply the bloc's : Catherine Stupp.
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